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Halaman Utama Shvoong>Seni & Humaniora>Konsep, pendekatan, prinsip dan aspek geogr

Konsep, pendekatan, prinsip dan aspek geogr

oleh: Triyono     Pengarang : Slamet Triyono
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CONCEPT, APPROACH, PRINCIPLE AND ASPECT OF GEOGRAPHY

After learning this chapter student are expexted to be able to:
1. Describe about geographycal science
2. Scope and object of geography
3. Principle used by geographical science in analyzing every phenomenon on earth’s surface

INTRODUCTION
Geography is the science that studies similarity and difference of geospheric phenomena with environmental and regional point of view in spatial context. Basically, scope of geography encompasses all phenomena that happen on earth’s surface with some variations and spatial organizations. Therefore, geography can obtain data and facts anywhere and anytime
DEVELOPMENT of GEOGRAPHY
• Fisis Determinis 
according to fisis determinis point of view, living organism are influenced by natural law. Figures that followed this point of view were Ratzel, Huntington, and Karl Richter.
DEVELOPMENT of GEOGRAPHY
2. Posibilis 
according to posibilis point of view, humans besides being influenced nature, also had role in nature according to the development of his culture. This point of view was pioneered by Paul Vidal de La Blanche
THE FOLLOWING ARE OPINIONS OF THOS FIGURES
• RATZEL (1844-1895)
• HUNTINGTON
• FERDINAN VON RICTHOFFEN (1838-1905)
• PAUL VIDAL DE La BLANCHE
• RICHARD HARTSHONE
• PRESTON E JAMES
THE DEFINITION OF GEOGRAPHY
• JAMES
• BARLOW
• I MADE SANDY
• BINTARTO
• SEMINAR AND WORKSHOP OF IGI INDONESIAN GEOGRAPHICAL in 1988 on SEMARANG
ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS OF GEOGRAPHY
There are 10 essential concepts of geography :
1. Concept of location
2. Concept of distance
3. Concept of achievability
4. Concept of pattern
5. Concept of morphology
6. Concept of aglomerasi
7. Concept of utility value
8. Concept of interaction
9. Concept of Are Differentiation
10. Concept of spatial interrelatedness
PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY
There are FOUR principles of geography :
• Spreading principle
• Interrelationship principle
• Descriptive principle
• Chorological principle
ASPECTS OF GEOGRAPHY
1. Physical Aspects
• Climate and its elements
• Relief of earth
• Earthquake

2. Social Aspects
• Population
• Mobility of Population
• The Spreading of Population
THE SCOPE OF GEOGRAPHY
Geography is a science that studies interaction betwen man and his environment, so geography has clear objects and scope. The object of geography basically is devided into two, that is material objects and formal objects.
THE MATERIAL OBJECTS OF GEOGRAPHY ARE GEOSPHERIC PHENOMENA THAT COVER SEVERAL LAYERS, THEY ARE :
• Lithosphere
• Atmosphere
• Hydrosphere
• Biosphere and anthroposphere
Formal objects are regions on earth surface that have their own characteristics, so they can be distinguished from other regions, usually based on natural and social aspects
CLASSIFICATION AND BRANCH OF GEOGRAPHY :
Physical Geography :
• Geology, a science that studies structure, composition, history and development process of the earth
• Pedology, a science that studies the kinds formation process of soil
• Astronomy, a science that studies celestial bodies
• Oceanology, a science that studies about physical and chemical properties of sea water
• Climatology, a science that studies about climate
• Meteorology, a science that studies about weather
• Volcanology, a science that studies about vulcanoes
• Seismology, a science that studies about earthquake
• Geophysics, a science that studies the properties of the inner part of the earth with physical method, such as measuring earthquake, gravitation, and magnetic field
• Biogeography, a study about spreading of living organisms geographically on earth’s surface
CLASSIFICATION AND BRANCH OF GEOGRAPHY :
• SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY
Social geography is a branch of geography that covers population aspects and human activities that consist of economic, politics, social, and cultural activities.

• Human geography, a branch of Geography that studies social, economy, and culture of population.
• Anthropogeography, a branch of geography that studies the spreading of races on earth, seen from geographical point of view
• Polytical geography, a branch of geography that studies geographycal conditions seen specifically
• Regional geography, a branch of geography that studies a certain region specifically
• Population geography, a branch of geography that studies the member, spreading, and composition of population
• Economic geography, a branch of geography that studies economic activities of population in a certain region
• Rural geography, a branch of geography that studies the condition of rural areas, including the the society, from geographical point of view
• Urban geography, a branch of geography that studies about urban regions, including the society, from geographycal point of view

Diterbitkan di: 31 Agustus, 2009   
Mohon dinilai : 1 2 3 4 5
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